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C is related to the distance between the plates of the capacitor by the equation d where k is a constant.

Operation of the circuit is extremely simple. The frequency range of the circuit runs from 0. Op-amp lowest supply voltage highest supply voltage highest frequency 5 V 36 V kHz 3.

This is fed through the rectifier A3 to appear on capacitor C6 and hence at the inverting input of comparator A4. Since the collector resistor of T1 R6 receives its supply voltage from,C4, the amplitude of the collector signal varies in sym- Flgure 1.

Elektor – Circuits : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

FFl receives pulses from the clock oscillator constructed around NJ and N2. This is sufficiently long for the indication to be seen.

Bosschaert Audible logic probe o Al With the component values shown in the dia- gram, the frequency can be adjusted from ap- prox. In addition, transcription from either tape re- corder to the other is possible, while at the same time a totally different source disc, tuner, etc.

The positive- and negative-going sweeps of the integrator output make up a triangular wave- form, whose amplitude is determined by the hysteresis of the Schmitt trigger i. The output waveform of IC1 thus consists of a series of positive pulses whose duration T2 is a constant and whose spacing Tl depends on the output voltage of IC2.

In cases where the symmetry improves as the circjits of P2 is turned down towards the output of N3 but exact sym- metry cannot be obtained, the top of R4 should be connected in the alternative position. A V 1 A thyristor should also prove suitable.

When the voltage across Cl reaches the thres- hold value of NlT3 is turned on via NJ and N2 S and Cl is discharged, after which the whole cycle repeats itself. The power supply does not need to be regulated, so it can be kept very simple. The flip-flop which has been set may be reset ready for the next question by pushbutton Sr. Cl holds the second input of N1 below its 30 threshold for about elektkr ms, during which time the output of the circuit will remain low, even if noise pulses on the input waveform should take the first input of N1 high.


Carbon film resistors have a low self-inductance, but unfortunately are not commonly available in the high power ratings re- quired for amplifier testing. The complete circuit of the alarm ekektor shown in fig- ure 1.

301 Circuits (300 Series) by Elektor Electronics Paperback Book The Fast

To restore the correct DC bias conditions it will also be necessary to reduce the value of R6, and this will result in a slight increase in current dircuits tion, However, reducing the value of R7 does lower the output impedance of the preamp, which means that longer cables can be driven without attenuation of high frequency signals.

The TAP is now reset to its orig- inal state. Knotted handkerchief Since the advent of paper handkerchiefs, that time-honoured method of jogging a forgetful memory, namely tying a knot in one’s hanky, has been faced with practical difficulties. Since the flip-flop is docked by the 1, Hz signal, the FSK signal will always consist of ‘complete’ cycles of both 1, and 2, Hz. If a higher supply than 15 V is used then R4 and D2 must be included, otherwise the 1C may be damaged.

The value of inductance thereby obtained h equal elektot the product of the values of R2, R3 and C2 i. N1 and N2 are Schmitt triggers connected to form a monostab ie multivibrator with a period of about 15 ms. The input signals are fed to a pair of electronic switches each comprising two elements of a CMOS analogue switch IC.

Full text of “Elektor – Circuits”

The frequency range of the circuit is approximately Hz to 30 kHz. The control current through the diodes increases and their dynamic resistance decreases, thus attenuating the output signal. When S2 is oper- ated, the output of N6 is high but the output of NS is low; this circukts state switches both coun- ters into the down-count mode.


Table 2 lists the result- ing current measurement ranges. This can be used to calibrate the oscilloscope time- base.

RCA Application Notes, Auto trigger level control Oscilloscopes, frequency counters and other in- struments triggered by AC signals almost invari- ably have a manual trigger level control, circuist ad- just the point on the waveform at which trigger- ing occurs.

A diaphragm is coupled to a cylindrical coil, which is suspended in the field of a powerful per- manent magnet. Assume for ihe moment that R — is connected to the positive 1 14 Figure 1.

Elektor – 301 Circuits

eelktor The output of A4 will thus swing down to 0 V, turning on the stereo decoder. Performance The output voltage of the specified electret cap- sule is typically 6. Both count clock pulses, but while IC6 counts every clock pulse 1C5 counts dock pulses only whilst the Q output of FF1 is high.

Automotive voltmeter Although vital for satisfactory operation of the vehicle, the car battery is often taken for granted and rarely receives adequate maintenance. This can be achieved by pro- viding the resistor with a centre tap and connec- ting it as shown in figure 1Current flows in op- posite directions in each half of the resistor, so the magnetic fields clrcuits in each half and hence the self-inductances tend to cancel out.

In order that the circuit should be kept simple the temperature sensing element is a negative vircuits coefficient thermistor NTCThis has the advantage that the temperature coef- ficient of resistance is fairly large, but unfortu- nately it has the disadvantage that the tempera- ture coefficient is not constant and the tempera- ture-voltage output of the circuit is thus non- linear.

The exact posi- tive- eletkor negative-going output swing achieved depends on the type of opamp used.